摘 要：Speci cation is the rst and arguably the most important step for formal veri cation and correct-by-construction synthesis. These tasks require understanding precisely a design's intended behavior, and thus are only e ective if the speci cation is created right. For example,much of the challenge in bug nding lies in nding the speci cation that mechanized tools can use to nd bugs. It is extremely dicult to manually create a complete suite of goodquality formal speci cations, especially given the enormous scale and complexity of designs today. Many real-world experiences indicate that poor or the lack of sucient speci cations can easily lead to misses of critical bugs, and in turn design re-spins and time-to-market slips.