This assessment focused on five zinc-bearing minerals. The minerals were subjected to a number of analyses including quantitative X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, leaching tests, and bioaccessibility and toxicity studies. Like a previous comprehensive assessment of five copper-bearing minerals, the purpose of this assessment was to obtain structural and chemical information and to characterize the reactivity of each mineral to various simulated environmental and biological conditions. As in the copper minerals study, analyses were conducted consistent with widely accepted methods. Unless otherwise noted, analytical methods used for this study were identical to those described in the investigation of copper-bearing minerals. Two sphalerite specimens were included in the zinc-minerals set. One sphalerite was recovered from a mine in Balmat, New York; the second came from a mine in Creede, Colorado. The location and conditions of origin are significant because, as analyses confirmed, the two sphalerite specimens are quite different. For example, data acquired from a simulated gastric fluid (SGF) study indicate that the hydrothermally formed Creede sphalerite contains orders of magnitude higher arsenic, cadmium, manganese, and lead than the much older metamorphic Balmat sphalerite. The SGF and other experimental results contained in this report suggest that crystallizing conditions such as temperature, pressure, fluidization, or alteration processes significantly affect mineral propertiesproperties that, in turn, influence reactivity, solubility, and toxicity. The three remaining minerals analyzed for this reportsmithsonite, hemimorphite, and hydrozinciteare all secondary minerals or alteration products of zinc-ore deposits. In addition, all share physical characteristics such as tenacity, density, streak, and cleavage. Similarities end there. The chemical composition, unit-cell parameters, acid-neutralizing potential, and other observable and quantifiable properties indicate very different minerals. Only one of each of these minerals was studied. Had this assessment included multiples of these minerals, geochemical and mineralogical distinctions would have emerged, similar to the results for the two sphalerite specimens.
On February 12, 2013, at approximately 9:35 p.m., Glen Clutter (victim), a 51- year-old general inside laborer and acting motorman, with 31 years of mining experience sustained fatal injuries. A slate bar struck the victim as he attempted to re-rail a supply car. Clutter and Scott Shay, General Inside Laborer, were attempting to re-rail the first of four cars that had de-railed. The car shifted and the slate bar struck Clutter on the right side of his face and on the forehead.
On May 17, 2013, Isaac A. Garcia, Mucker, age 22, was killed when he was pinned between two loaded ore cars. An electric locomotive was pulling a train of 13 cars loaded with ore up a slight grade when the eleventh car derailed and uncoupled from the tenth car. Garcia was attempting to unhook the safety chain between the two ore cars.
On Tuesday, February 19, 2013, at approximately 7:15 p.m., John Myles, a 44- year-old shuttle car operator with four years of total mining experience was fatally injured when he was pinned underneath the rear frame of a rubber-tired battery-powered section scoop. The accident occurred on the Number 3 Section, 002-0 Mechanized Mining Unit (MMU), in the connecting crosscut between the Number 5 and Number 6 entries, two crosscuts inby the section dumping point at survey station No. 1170, and 2 crosscuts outby the working face. The accident occurred as the victim was shoveling loose coal and loose material near the ribs in a crosscut adjacent to an entry where a miner was operating a scoop to clean the roadway. The scoop entered the crosscut in a reverse direction and struck the victim, pinning him beneath the batteries of the machine.
Speci cation is the rst and arguably the most important step for formal veri cation and correct-by-construction synthesis. These tasks require understanding precisely a design's intended behavior, and thus are only e ective if the speci cation is created right. For example,much of the challenge in bug nding lies in nding the speci cation that mechanized tools can use to nd bugs. It is extremely dicult to manually create a complete suite of goodquality formal speci cations, especially given the enormous scale and complexity of designs today. Many real-world experiences indicate that poor or the lack of sucient speci cations can easily lead to misses of critical bugs, and in turn design re-spins and time-to-market slips.
Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), projects are in progress that span a wide range of activities, with the emphasis on research to extend the scientific basis for solar energy applications, and on preliminary development of new approaches to solar energy conversion.