尽管今年韩国建筑行业投资有望带动钢铁行业缓慢复苏，但预计汽车和造船行业仍将持续低迷。因此， 2016 年韩国钢铁企业还将继续面临困境，只有通过与进口钢材竞争、扩大对外出口等途径积极寻求突破。
Manganese is widely used in steel production for desulfuration and deoxidization. It enhances tensile strength, wear resistance, weldability, and hardness of steel. In 2015, out of the total manganese alloys produced, 90.06% was used in the production of steel. It is also used with aluminum, copper, and other elements to make different alloys. Manganese is found as braunite, pyrolusite, psilomelane, and rhodochrosite. Pyrolusite is the most important manganese ore.
Kaolin, also known as china clay or kaolinite, is a soft, white, and plastic clay. It contains fine-grained plate-like particles. It is non-abrasive, chemically inert, and has low heat and electric conductivity. The paper industry is the largest end-user of kaolin. It is used for filling and coating of paper. Kaolin is also used in many other industries such as ceramics, paints, fiberglass, and rubber.
The oilfield services (OFS) market consists of a diverse set of services such as exploration, drilling, production, and completion. The market is unpredictable, as it is vulnerable to oil and gas price fluctuations. Despite this vulnerability, oilfield services providers are investing in and developing new technologies to boost production. These new technologies, such as enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and vertical drilling, reduce drilling time and enable efficient extraction of oil. Further, operational costs are being reduced through faster completion times and cleaner processing methods. Such developments are encouraging further investments.
Zinc is the most widely used metal after steel, aluminum, and copper. Around 49% of zinc produced globally is used for galvanizing. Galvanization is the process of immersing steel in molten zinc to create a corrosion-resistant coating of zinc-coated steel. Galvanized steel is used in a wide variety of industries such as construction and automobile. Zinc alloys such as brass and bronze are used in machine bearings, diecasting, and stamping dies. Zinc is also used in electrical fittings, medical equipment, rubber goods, paint pigments, and ceramics.
Diamond is a scarce, naturally-occurring mineral that is made up of carbon. Each carbon atom in a diamond is attached to four other carbon atoms and these carbon atoms are connected to four other carbon atoms by covalent bonds. This structure is uniform and tightly held; this arrangement forms one of the most durable minerals known to mankind. Diamonds are one of Africa’s major natural resources. In 2014, $13.5 billion worth of rough diamonds were produced, of which $7.83 billion worth of rough diamonds were from the African continent.
Brazil is one of the largest mining markets in the world. However, it faces strong competition from local subsidiaries of multinational companies. In terms of volume, the Brazilian mining industry is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.2% during the forecast period (2015-2019).
Neon, a noble and inert gas and aerogen, is a chemical element that exhibits chemical inertness on account of its unique atomic structure. It is highly unreactive; therefore, it is widely used for non-reactive applications. Apart from neon, there are five other naturally occurring noble gases: helium, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon.
Cobalt occurs in combination with other elements in minerals such as skutterudite (a cobalt-nickel arsenide), carrollite (a copper-cobalt-(nickel) sulfide), and asbolane (a nickel-cobalt-manganese oxide). It is obtained from three main ore deposits: Sedimenthosted stratiform copper deposits, magmatic nickel sulfide deposits, and nickel laterite deposits. Cobalt is generally processed as a by-product of processed nickel and copper ores. It can also be produced through recycling. Cobalt and its alloys find application in many sectors and industries, such as battery chemicals, superalloys, defense, and catalysts.
Rare earth metals comprise seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, i.e., fifteen elements of the lanthanide series, and scandium, and yttrium. Scandium and yttrium are also considered rare earth metals as they are found in the same mineral ore deposits as the other elements of the lanthanide series. Rare earth metals have unique physical and chemical properties, which make them suitable to alloy with other metals for use in applications that require enhanced magnetic strength, hightemperature resistance, and other properties.