In 2017, the oil and gas extraction index rebounded from the slump in 2016. The country’s natural gas production increased in volume terms by 7.3% y/y in 2017, whereas crude oil output volumes were reduced by 5.8% y/y. Value wise, the production of crude oil and natural gas surged cumulatively by 13% y/y to RON 12.9bn on the price increase of energy commodities on the global markets. In 2016, natural gas producers in Romania scaled back output volumes due to intensified competition from imported gas as import prices fell below domestic gas prices. However, in 2017, the oversupply condition on the European gas markets eased, prices rose and the Romanian companies ramped up production volumes again.
In 2016 and 2017 the growth of the Indian economy slowed down noticeably, mostly as a result of two government initiatives. One was the withdrawal of high-value banknotes in November 2016, known as “demonetisation” or “DeMo”; and the other was the introduction, in July 2017, of the Goods and Services Tax, which replaced India’s cascading and complex taxation system and, in effect, created a pan-Indian single market for the first time since the nation’s independence in 1947. Real GDP growth in 2021 is expected to reach the high of 8.0% that the Indian economy registered back in 2015, after slow but steady annual increases. Public spending on infrastructure and stable domestic consumption will be the main growth drivers over the forecast period. India spent INR 60tn on infrastructure in the period from FY2007 and FY2017, and estimates it will need to invest some INR 50tn more over the five fiscal years starting on April 1, 2018. The upcoming general elections in 2019 might pose risks to the reform agenda of prime minister Narendra Modi’s government, but infrastructure will hardly be removed from the priority list, as there is a wide political consensus that India needs top-quality infrastructure to sustain its growth in future.
Russia currently represents 10% of world production and 18% of world exports, making it one the leading players on the world market. However, the country's share of world consumption currently stands at 1.8%. Moreover, Russia is the biggest world producer of ammonium nitrate (AN), the second biggest – of potassium chloride (KCI), the third – of ammophos (MAP), the forth – of diammophos (DAP). The production of mineral fertilizers is also one of the key industries of the Russian chemical sector. The mineral fertilizers industry accounts for more than a third of production by value and 40% of exports in the sector.
Peru is among the leading global players in the production of metallic minerals. In 2017, the country ranked second in the world in terms of silver, copper and zinc output, with global shares of 17.2%, 12.4% and 11.2%, respectively. Moreover, it was the fourth-largest molybdenum and lead manufacturer (with shares of 9.7% and 6.5%). In 2016, mining was Peru’s second-largest economic sector, accounting for 7.7% of GDP, 3.6% of total employment and 58.8% of national exports. However, over the period 2012-2016, the sector was affected by the negative phase in the cycle of international metal commodity prices, which caused a 5.8% average annual decline in revenues from mining exports. At the same time, the volume of foreign sales of mining products rose at a CAGR of 3.9% over the same period, pushed up by the strong performance of domestic output, which increased at a CAGR of 5%.
India is a significant player in the global gems and jewellery market. Gold, in particular, has important cultural importance in India and gold jewellery is frequently purchased for weddings or religious festivals. Additionally, gold jewellery is also used as a form of savings, especially in rural parts of the country where many Indians still do not have easy access to formal financial institutions. In recent years, the tastes of Indian consumers have been shifting. Economic growth has created a widening Indian middle class that has been looking for different aesthetics compared with traditional, heavy gold jewellery. This has created rising demand for jewellery made from other precious metals including silver and platinum, and for diamond jewellery.
Mining automation refers to the automation of mining techniques, which involve the transition from manual labor to automated mining techniques. Mining automation involves extracting ores, minerals, or other resources using technology and information. The process is undertaken to ensure, better efficiency, productivity, safety, and reduction in operating cost at the mining site. It involves the removal of human labor from the mining process. Advancements in information technology, and automation assist in optimizing workflow. The report provides a detailed analysis of the market with reference to the techniques in mining automation, types in mining automation, and the applications.
Tanzania and South Africa will remain as regional mining risk hotspots due to ongoing uncertainty surrounding their regulatory environments and the impact this may have on existing operations. Illegal mining will pose growing challenges to a number of important mining markets in SSA, spurred by rising commodity prices. Mining sector investment activity within the region will rise on a y-o-y basis, as better performing commodity prices lead to improved financial positions for miners. Africa's coal and iron ore sectors will continue to grow in the coming years despite downside price pressures, supported by increasing Chinese and Indian investment.
Mining trucks are defined as specialized trucks used for carrying and hauling mining materials such as minerals, metals, and coal. The global truck mining market is segmented into light-duty vehicles, medium-duty vehicles, and heavy-duty vehicles. When the gross weight of the vehicle is more than 33,069 lbs., it is termed as a heavyduty vehicle. Heavy-duty vehicles, such as mining trucks, are designed in several different processes such as follows
Zinc occurs naturally as mineral zincite, but the major amount of zinc oxide for industrial and commercial applications is produced synthetically. The raw materials that are used for the production of zinc oxide are typically recycled byproducts. The commonly used raw materials are residual oxidic materials that are obtained from the galvanizing process or zinc bearing materials from mixed sources.
Calcium carbonate is mined from limestone reserves and further treated for superior quality. It is processed from naturally occurring high-purity calcite ores comprising CaCO₃as a chief component. it is further washed, ground, crushed, and customized as per products of desired quality and various grades.